Viscosity and gel strength increase during drilling penetration of the formations by the bit, contributes the active solids, inert solids and contaminants to the system.
Set meter multiplier switch at the X1 position with the voltage control knob at zero. Contents retained on the screen in Step 2 of the procedure should not be mashed, stirred, or mutually forced through the screen with a finger, pencil, or the like, as this will give an erroneous reading and may pull the screen loose from the side of the container.
The accuracy of your calculations depends on the retort test data.
Similarly, proper control of an oil emulsion mud depends upon a knowledge of the oil content. Allow the sand to settle. For muds containing only water and solids, the quantity of each can be determined from the mud density and from the evaporation of a weighed sample of mud.
Care of Equipment Before each retorting the following should be done: When movement of the red flag occurs, indicating current flow between electrodes, read breakdown voltage on meter.
Take special care to clean and dry the mesh screen. They are used in the evaluation of inverted emulsion drilling fluids, cements, and fracturing fluids.
For practical field purpose, however the Experiment on determination of drilling mud density depends upon the concentration of mud solids.
Low or high voltage will cause variations in time required. The volume of sand, including void spaces between grains, is usually measured and expressed as percentage by volume of the mud. Viscosity is usually measured by marsh funnel.
Remove and replace any mud-caked steel wool. Increase in the yield point may be due to several factors such as breakdown of clays particles by grinding action of bit, introduction of inert solids and soluble contaminants such as salt, cement, etc. For diesel oil this time will be about 15 minutes with the thermostated retorts and about 20 minutes in the uncontrolled units at volts.
Fit funnel down over top of screen, invert slowly turning tip of funnel into mouth of tube, and wash sand back into tube with a fine spray of clear water on the back side of the screen. Immerse probe in well-stirred sample so that electrodes are covered. Oil and water content can also be obtained measuring the liquid fraction.
The apparatus required to determine the oil, water and solids content of the mud is included in the Baroid Oil and Water Retort Kit See figure below. Such information will often explain poor performance of the mud and indicate whether the mud can best be conditioned by the addition of water or whether treatment with chemical thinner or the removal of the contaminant is required.
Select power source desired and set power switch accordingly D. Read the volume of oil and of water. Clean the retort drain tube and condenser with a pipe cleaner.
Using the spatula as a screwdriver, remove the mud chamber from the retort. Crude oils may require longer heating periods. More meaningful information concerning viscosity and its control can be obtained with a rotational viscometer.
Of the three methods, sieve analysis is preferred because of reliability of test and simplicity of equipment. Yield point is a measure of these forces under flow conditions and depends upon 1 surface properties of the mud solids 2 Volume concentration of solids 3 the electrical environment of these solids concentration and types of ions in the fluid phase of the mud.
Fresh water should give a reading of 8. Replace retort in insulator block and put insulation cover in place. Pack the upper chamber with very fine steel wool. Clean probe carefully after each use, using care not to alter the spacing of electrode.
Mud tends to thicken up if left unagitated for some time. Yield point is the second component of resistance to flow in a drilling fluid on account of the electro-chemical or attractive forces present in mud.
Wash sand retained on screen with a stream of water to remove all mud and shale particles. The latter method is only applicable to oil emulsion muds. It is the timed rate of flow and measured in seconds per quart. Caution Do not touch bare metal of electrodes when instrument is turned on. An accurate charge of mud is essential.THE properties of drilling fluid are: A) DENSITY (SPECIFIC GRAVITY) Density is defined as weight per unit volume.
It is expressed either in ppg (lbs gallons) or pound per cubic feet (lb/ft3) OR kg/M^3 or gm/cm^3 or compared to the weight of an equal volume of water as specific gravity. Drilling Engineering, Drilling Mud, Laboratory Tests. Drilling Engineering, Drilling Mud, Laboratory Tests – used to increase mud density up to maximum of ±22 ppg.
• Hermatite (iron oxide) – used to increase mud density up to maximum of ±25 ppg. • Calcium carbonate – used to increase mud density up to maximum of ±14 ppg. Experiment On Determination Of Drilling Mud Density Mud weight otherwise known as drilling fluid density is a very important property of the drilling fluid which must be determined regularly during the drilling process.
Experimental Investigation of Drilling Fluid Performance as Nanoparticles. Jamal Nasser. 1, Anna Jesil. 1* also referred to as drilling mud, are added to the wellbore to facilitate the drilling process by suspending cuttings, controlling pressure, stabilizing ex- Determination of Mud Density.
The Baroid Mud Balance as shown below in. The solid phase of a drilling mud units of two components, i.e. (i) High specific gravity solids with a specific gravity of and (ii) Low specific gravity solids with a specific gravity of The total solids phase, in volume %, is found by the Baroid Oil and Water Retort.
properties of drilling fluid such as mud weight (density), rheology (viscosity, gel strength, yield point) sand content, wall building and filtration characteristics.Download